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Rome / Roman(s)


Pronunciation:  ROHM

Occurrences:  Rome - 4        Roman(s) - 14

First Reference:  Yeshua 1:13


And there were also gathered among the people, soldiers of Rome, and many would not so much as stand near unto them, for they were not of the seed of Abraham; and many were astonished that John should number these Gentiles among the house of Israel; but John forbade no man the blessings of that God who called him forth.



See:  Caesar Augustus, Caesar Tiberius, Herodians, Marcus Galerius, Pontius Pilate, Zealots


Summary:  Roman occupation of Israel began in 63 BCE. While the Jewish people were granted various measures of autonomy, Judea was ruled by Roman authority or Jewish leaders operating under the name of Rome. During the days of Yeshua, the social, political and religious climate of Judea was a complex mix of differing ideologies. Yeshua’s ministry unfolded in the midst of several primary social groups: the Zealot party, the Herodians, the Pharisees, the Sadducees, and the Essenes. Each of these groups held differing religious and secular views and agendas, including those pertaining to Roman occupation.


Significant Dates


63 BCE — Romans invade Judea and besiege the temple in Jerusalem, bringing an end to Jewish sovereignty. Judea becomes a client kingdom of Rome.


37 BCE — Having been appointed ‘King of the Judea’ by the Roman Senate, Herod the Great takes Jerusalem and secures the throne of Judea.


4 BCE — Death of Herod the Great, his kingdom is divided among three of his sons as an inheritance:


Herod Archelaus becomes the Ethnarch of Idumaea, Judea and Samaria.

Herod Antipas becomes Tetrarch of Galilee and Perea.

Herod Philip becomes Tetrarch of the northern part of his father’s kingdom, which included the territories of Batanea, Trachonitis, Auranitis, and Panias (Y:20:46).


6 BCE — Birth of Yeshua. Archelaus is removed from his position by Caesar Augustus due to complaints resulting from his cruelty towards the Jewish people and for violating Mosaic Law. The territory is reorganized as the Roman province of Judaea and placed under the authority of a series of Roman prefects (governors), which came to include Pontius Pilate.


70 CE — After years of uprisings and revolts throughout Judea, Jerusalem is besieged and destroyed by Roman forces. Most of the inhabitants are either killed or enslaved.



Significant People / Places


Caesar Augustus — first Emperor of Rome, ruled from 27 BCE–14 CE, appointed Herod the Great as King.

Caesar Tiberius — Roman Emperor from 14–37 CE, murdered by his great-nephew Caligula.

Caesarea — Roman capital of Palestine, official residence of Pilate.

Caligula — Roman Emperor from 37–41 CE; great-nephew, adopted son of Tiberius.

Callistus — Roman merchant from the town of Serepta.

Claudia Procula — niece of Caesar Tiberius and wife of Pontius Pilate.

Eleazar Ben Menachem — Head of the Zealots, wanted to place Yeshua on the throne.

Herod Antipas — Tetrarch of Galilee and Perea.

Herod Philip — Tetrarch of Batanea, Trachonitis, Auranitis and Panias.

Herod the Great — King of Judea from 37–4 BCE.

Joseph (father of Yeshua) — died in 17 CE; was among a group of civilians from Nazareth crucified by Roman soldiers as an object lesson and act of revenge in response to an attack from the Zealot leader, Judas of Gamala.

Joseph Caiaphas — purchased the position of High Priest from the Roman governor, Pontius Pilate.

Judas of Gamala — Zealot leader and self-proclaimed messiah.

Julius Atticus — a spy sent by Caesar Tiberius to gather information about Yeshua.

Marcus Galerius — Tribune of Rome, Prefect of the Fortress Antonia, reported to Pilate.

Pensius  — Roman decturian (soldier), natural father of Yeshua and Thomas.

Pontius Pilate — Governor of Palestine and subordinate of Vitellius; sold the office of High Priest to Caiaphas.

Rufinius — Roman centurion who became a devoted follower of Yeshua after the healing of his servant, Albion.

Vitellius — Roman governor of Syria.





Hearing, therefore, that John baptized in the waters of Jordan, by the lands of Perea, Pilate inquired of Herod Antipas concerning him; for the Jews were ever disputing among themselves the coming of the Anointed One, seeking always to throw off the yoke and power of Rome.

Yeshua 2:2


Now there came unto John certain of his disciples and one of them, being a Zealot, spoke, saying: “Rabboni, we know that you are sent by God unto the people, tell us, therefore, by what power shall the Anointed One throw off the power of Rome. For at his coming we would lift the sword against the oppressor, that we might establish again in Jerusalem the throne of David.”

Yeshua 2:33


33. Now when the Pharisees saw that the Zealots grew troubled because of Yeshua, they took counsel whereby they might cause the Zealots to turn against him.

34. And one spoke unto the Lord, saying: “Master, we know that you are true and faithful unto God always, being equal and just towards all men; for you regard not the station of any man.

35. Tell us, therefore, what say you of taxes which the Romans impose? Is it just to give tribute unto Caesar, or not?”

36. But Yeshua, perceiving the trickery of their hearts, spoke, saying: “You hypocrites, for what just cause would you entangle me? Show me the tribute money.”

37. And they gave unto the Lord a silver denarius. And the Lord showing it unto the people, said:

38. “Whose image and inscription do you see?” They answered, “Caesar’s.”

39. Then said the Lord unto them, “Give unto Caesar the things which are Caesar’s, and give unto God the things which are God’s.”

40. Now when the Zealots heard this they seethed with indignation against the Lord, for he commanded that all men should pay tribute unto Caesar.

Yeshua 29:33-40


And Pilate, hearing the shouts of the people asked concerning it, for he understood not the tongue of the Jews.

And one of his servants said: “My lord, the people say that this Yeshua is a king appointed by God to rule over the people.”

Now when Pilate heard this, he was greatly troubled because of it, for he feared that the Jews would rise up against Rome because of the Galilean.

Yeshua 42:10-12


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Yeshua 5:1-7      Was this Rome’s first encounter with Yeshua?

Rio Cassalia
Rome (First Track)